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We compared the ultrastructure of type 2A extrafusal muscle fibers, the nuclear chain, and other intrafusal fibers of muscle spindle (muscle stretch mechanoreceptor) in adult rats after prolonged swimming (5–10 h/day, 10 days). The Golgi apparatus was expressed moderately in type 2A extrafusal fibers and hypertrophied in the motor B zone of nuclear chain intrafusal fibers. Intense development of the Golgi apparatus in the nuclear chain intrafusal fiber appears to be related to glycogenolysis in the autophagous vacuoles, involvement in the lysosome activity, and plasma membrane renewal. “Recapitulation” of the mechanism of glycogen autophagy, which is observed in newborn rats during mobilization of glycogen from the liver and muscle, was demonstrated in adult rats under the influence of physical load in the nuclear chain and nuclear bag2 intrafusal fibers and in type 2A extrafusal fibers. This is accounted for by a weak differentiation of the intrafusal muscle fibers: structurally, they are similar to myotubes and have specific features of blood supply and innervation. Individual features of experimental adult rats may also play a certain role.