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We studied the anticholinesterase and anticarboxylesterase effects of 1,3,2-oxazaphosphorynane derivatives and certain cyclic and acyclic analogs on the two enzymes of homoiotherms (ACE from human erythrocytes and BuCE from horse serum) as well as the enzymes from insect tissues (the nerve cord of the American cockroach and the cephalic region of the domestic fly). The differences in in vitro antiesterase activity of cyclic thionic and the corresponding oxo derivatives of phosphorinane were revealed. The mechanism of the esterase active center phosphorylation not only splitting off the outgoing group (in vivo) but also opening the cycle by P–O bond (in vitro and possibly in vivo) is usually proposed to explain the higher inhibiting activity of the thionic compounds compared to the oxonic ones. The possible involvement of this phosphorylation mechanism in the synergistic activity of the studied compounds is discussed.