Contours and dimple for the Gneiting class of space-time correlation functions

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We offer a dual view of the dimple problem related to space-time correlation functions in terms of their contours. We find that the dimple property (Kent et al., 2011) in the Gneiting class of correlations is in one-to-one correspondence with nonmonotonicity of the parametric curve describing the associated contour lines. Further, we show that given such a nonmonotonic parametric curve associated with a given level set, all the other parametric curves at smaller levels inherit the nonmonotonicity. We propose a modified Gneiting class of correlations having monotonically decreasing parametric curves and no dimple along the temporal axis.

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