Apolipoprotein E Structure and Substrate and Receptor-Binding Activities of Triglyceride-Rich Human Plasma Lipoproteins in Normo- and Hypertriglyceridemia

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Cysteine-arginine interchanges along the primary sequence of human plasma apolipoprotein E (apoE) play an important role in determining its biological functions due to a high mutation frequency of cytosine in CGX triplet that codes 33 of 34 apolipoprotein arginine residues. The contribution of apoE secondary structure to apolipoprotein–lipid interaction is described. The significance of apolipoprotein in triglyceride synthesis, lipoprotein lipolysis, and receptor-mediated clearance of lipolytic remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is discussed as well. The metabolic flow of lipoproteins in normo- and hypertriglyceridemia can be described by separate compartments that contribute to lipoprotein interaction with at least six different receptors: 1) low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor; 2) LDL receptor-related protein (LRP); 3) apoB48 macrophage receptor for hypertriglyceridemic very low density lipoproteins (VLDL); 4) scavenger receptors; 5) VLDL receptor; 6) lipolysis-stimulated receptor. The contribution of the exposure of apoE molecules on the surface of triglyceride-rich particles sensitive both to lipolysis and plasma triglyceride content to the interaction with LDL receptor and LRP is emphasized.

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