How Proteins Pack into Crystals: Nuclei Achieve Translation Symmetries by Growing

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How protein molecules pack into a crystal remains problematic. Packing units are direct materials for packing into crystals. The group generator method is introduced for automatically identifying the packing unit. By introducing deviations into the nucleation stage of crystallization, we proved that these deviations diminish in further packing. This process illustrates how translation symmetries are achieved by the growing of nuclei. Two effects, the size effect and the close up effect, are found to behave differently in this process.

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