Genistein induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinomas via interaction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial insult

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Hepatocellular carcinoma is a very common malignancy and is chemoresistant to currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptotic pathway is suggested to be less affected by the resistance mechanisms, becoming a potential target of chemotherapeutic strategy. The anticancer effects and expression of GADD153, a transcription factor induced by ER stress, were examined in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells. The correlation between these two parameters was constructed under flavonoid stimulation with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.8. The data also showed that genistein (isoflavone) was the most effective one. Genistein induced the activation of several ER stress-relevant regulators, including m-calpain, GADD153, GRP78 and caspase-12. Furthermore, genistein-induced effect was inhibited in cells transfected with antisense GADD153 cDNA, indicating a functional role of GADD153. Notably, genistein induced the activation of caspase-2, whereas did not cause the DNA damage. It also triggered the production of ROS. The antioxidant trolox significantly reduced ROS accumulation, but did not modify genistein-induced apoptotic cell death. The long-term exposure (48 h) of cells to genistein caused Mcl-1 down-regulation and Bad cleavage; furthermore, cyclosporin A (an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore) almost completely abolished genistein-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced a 30% reverse of apoptosis caused by long-term treatment (48 h) of genistein, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial stress in the late phase of genistein-induced effect. Taken together, it is suggested that genistein induces the anticancer effect through a mechanism initiated by ER stress and facilitated by mitochondrial insult in Hep3B cells.

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