The current study has determined the ability of (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 to counter the development of diet-induced obesity-diabetes and examined persistence of beneficial metabolic effects in high fat and ob/ob mice, respectively. Twice daily injection of (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 in normal mice transferred to a high fat diet reduced energy intake (p < 0.001), body weight (p < 0.01), circulating insulin and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001) and improved insulin sensitivity (p < 0.001) as well as oral and intraperitoneal (p < 0.001) glucose tolerance. Energy intake, body weight, circulating insulin and glucose tolerance of (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 mice were similar to lean controls. In addition, (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 prevented the effect of high fat feeding on triacylglycerol accumulation in liver and muscle. Interestingly, (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 significantly (p < 0.001) elevated pancreatic glucagon content. Histological examination of the pancreata of (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 mice revealed no changes in islet number or size, but there was increased turnover of beta-cells with significantly (p < 0.001) increased numbers of peripherally located alpha-cells, co-expressing both glucagon and GLP-1. Beneficial metabolic effects were observed similarly in ob/ob mice treated twice daily with (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 for 18 days, including significantly reduced energy intake (p < 0.05), body weight (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01), circulating glucose (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01) and insulin (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) and improved glucose tolerance (p < 0.05) and insulin sensitivity (p < 0.001). Notably, these beneficial effects were still evident 18 days following cessation of treatment. These studies emphasize the potential of (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 for the treatment of obesity-diabetes.