BRP-187: A potent inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis that acts through impeding the dynamic 5-lipoxygenase/5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) complex assembly

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Abstract

The pro-inflammatory leukotrienes (LTs) are formed from arachidonic acid (AA) in activated leukocytes, where 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) translocates to the nuclear envelope to assemble a functional complex with the integral nuclear membrane protein 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP). FLAP, a MAPEG family member, facilitates AA transfer to 5-LO for efficient conversion, and LT biosynthesis critically depends on FLAP. Here we show that the novel LT biosynthesis inhibitor BRP-187 prevents the 5-LO/FLAP interaction at the nuclear envelope of human leukocytes without blocking 5-LO nuclear redistribution. BRP-187 inhibited 5-LO product formation in human monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide plus N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (IC50 = 7–10 nM), and upon activation by ionophore A23187 (IC50 = 10–60 nM). Excess of exogenous AA markedly impaired the potency of BRP-187. Direct 5-LO inhibition in cell-free assays was evident only at >35-fold higher concentrations, which was reversible and not improved under reducing conditions. BRP-187 prevented A23187-induced 5-LO/FLAP complex assembly in leukocytes but failed to block 5-LO nuclear translocation, features that were shared with the FLAP inhibitor MK886. Whereas AA release, cyclooxygenases and related LOs were unaffected, BRP-187 also potently inhibited microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (IC50 = 0.2 μM), another MAPEG member. In vivo, BRP-187 (10 mg/kg) exhibited significant effectiveness in zymosan-induced murine peritonitis, suppressing LT levels in peritoneal exudates as well as vascular permeability and neutrophil infiltration. Together, BRP-187 potently inhibits LT biosynthesis in vitro and in vivo, which seemingly is caused by preventing the 5-LO/FLAP complex assembly and warrants further preclinical evaluation.

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