The aim of study was to examine the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of adelmidrol, an analogue of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in animal models of acute and chronic inflammation [carrageenan-induced paw edema (CAR) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)].
In order to elucidate whether the action of adelmidrol is related to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α or PPAR-γ), we investigated the effects of PPAR-γ antagonist, GW9662 on adelmidrol mechanism. CAR induced paw edema, hyperalgesia and the activation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway were markedly reduced by treatment with adelmidrol. GW9662, (administered prior to adelmidrol treatment), antagonized the effect of adelmidrol abolishing its positive action. On the contrary, the genetic absence of PPAR-α receptor did not modify the beneficial results of adelmidrol treatment in the acute model of inflammation.
In addition, for the first time, we demonstrated that adelmidrol was able to ameliorate both the clinical signs and the histopathology of the joint and the hind paw during chronic inflammation. In particular, the degree of oxidative damage and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines production were significantly reduced in adelmidrol-treated mice. Moreover, in CIA model, the effect of GW9662 pre-treatment on adelmidrol mechanism was also confirmed. Thus, in this study, we report that adelmidrol reduces the development of acute and chronic inflammation and could represent a novel therapeutic approach for inflammation and pain.