Conditioning neoadjuvant therapies for improved immunotherapy of cancer

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Recent advances in the treatment of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by combining conventional therapies with anti-PD1/PD-L1 immunotherapies, have renewed interests in immunotherapy of cancer. The emerging concept of conventional cancer therapies combined with immunotherapy differs from the classical concept in that it is not simply taking advantage of their additive anti-tumor effects, but it is to use certain therapeutic regimens to condition the tumor microenvironment for optimal response to immunotherapy. To this end, low dose immunogenic chemotherapies, epigenetic modulators and inhibitors of cell cycle progression are potential candidates for rendering tumors highly responsive to immunotherapy. Next generation immunotherapeutics are therefore predicted to be highly effective against cancer, when they are used following appropriate immune modulatory compounds or targeted delivery of tumor cell cycle inhibitors using nanotechnology.

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