HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1), an antioxidant enzyme, induced by rosiglitazone (PPAR ligands) can be a potential treatment of inflammation. However, the mechanisms of rosiglitazone-induced HO-1 expression in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs) remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that upregulation of HO-1 in vitro or in vivo by rosiglitazone attenuated VCAM-1 gene expression and monocyte adhesion to HPAEpiCs challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The inhibitory effects of rosiglitazone on LPS-mediated responses were reversed by transfection with HO-1 siRNA. LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression was mediated through NF-κB activation which was attenuated by rosiglitazone via suppressing p65 activation and translocation into the nucleus. Moreover, pretreatment with the inhibitor of PKCs (H7), PKCα (Gö6976), AMPKα (Compound C), p38 MAPKα (p38i VIII), SIRT1 (Sirtinol), or PPARγ (T0070907) and transfection with siRNA of PKCα, AMPKα, p38 MAPKα, SIRT1, or PPARγ abolished the rosiglitazone-induced HO-1 expression in HPAEpiCs. Further studies indicated that rosiglitazone stimulated SIRT1 deacetylase leading to PGC1α translocation from the cytosol into the nucleus, promoting fragmentation of NCoR and phosphorylation of PPARγ. Subsequently, PPARγ was activated by phosphorylation of PKCα, AMPKα, p38 MAPKα, and SIRT1, which turned on transcription of HO-1 gene by binding to PPAR response element (PPRE) and enhancing PPARγ promoter activity. These results suggested that rosiglitazone-induced HO-1 expression is mediated through PKCα/AMPKα/p38 MAPKα/SIRT1-dependent deacetylation of Ac-PGC1α and fragmentation of NCoR/PPARγ activation in HPAEpiCs. Up-regulation of HO-1 protected against the inflammatory responses triggered by LPS, at least in part, through attenuation of NF-κB.