Jacareubin inhibits FcεRI-induced extracellular calcium entry and production of reactive oxygen species required for anaphylactic degranulation of mast cells

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Graphical abstractMast cells (MCs) are important effectors in allergic reactions since they produce a number of pre-formed and de novo synthesized pro-inflammatory compounds in response to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) crosslinking. IgE/Antigen-dependent degranulation and cytokine synthesis in MCs have been recognized as relevant pharmacological targets for the control of deleterious inflammatory reactions. Despite the relevance of allergic diseases worldwide, efficient pharmacological control of mast cell degranulation has been elusive. In this work, the xanthone jacareubin was isolated from the heartwood of the tropical tree Callophyllum brasilense, and its tridimensional structure was determined for the first time by X-ray diffraction. Also, its effects on the main activation parameters of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were evaluated. Jacareubin inhibited IgE/Ag-induced degranulation in a dose-response manner with an IC50 = 46 nM. It also blocked extracellular calcium influx triggered by IgE/Ag complexes and by the SERCA ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (Thap). Inhibition of calcium entry correlated with a blockage on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Antioxidant capacity of jacareubin was higher than the showed by α-tocopherol and caffeic acid, but similar to trolox. Jacareubin shown inhibitory actions on xanthine oxidase, but not on NADPH oxidase (NOX) activities. In vivo, jacareubin inhibited passive anaphylactic reactions and TPA-induced edema in mice. Our data demonstrate that jacareubin is a potent natural compound able to inhibit anaphylactic degranualtion in mast cells by blunting FcεRI-induced calcium flux needed for secretion of granule content, and suggest that xanthones could be efficient anti-oxidant, antiallergic, and antiinflammatory molecules.

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