A hispanolone-derived diterpenoid inhibits M2-Macrophage polarizationin vitrovia JAK/STAT and attenuates chitin induced inflammationin vivo

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Graphical abstractMacrophages are highly plastic cells that adopt different functional phenotypes in response to environmental signals. Classically activated macrophages (M1) exhibit a pro-inflammatory role, mediating host defense against microorganisms or tumor cells; whereas alternatively activated macrophages (M2) perform a range of physiological processes, including inflammation, wound repair and tissue remodeling. Interestingly, M2 macrophages have been involved in pathological settings such as tumor progression, parasitic infection and respiratory disorders. Consequently, the search of new agents able to control macrophage polarization is on the basis of new therapeutic strategies.In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of the hispanolone derivative 8,9-dehydrohispanolone-15,16-lactol (DHHL) on M2 macrophage polarization. Our results reveal that DHHL significantly inhibited IL-4- or IL-13-stimulated M2 macrophage activation, as showed by reduced expression of M2 markers. In addition, DHHL suppressed IL-4-induced STAT-6 and JAK-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that this compound inhibited M2 polarization by suppressing the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Finally, DHHL prevented eosinophil recruitment and the presence of F4/80+-CD206+ M2-like macrophages in an in vivo model of M2 polarization via administration of chitin. Collectively, these results confirm DHHL as a novel regulator of macrophage polarization suitable to design future therapies towards M2-macrophages mediated pathologies.

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