Melatonin exerts a range of physiological effects. However, the functional significance of melatonin in spermatogenesis and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential in the initiation and progression of testicular development, including spermatogenesis. Thus far, limited information is known about the role of miRNAs in melatonin-mediated spermatogenesis. In this study, the expression levels of testicular miRNA machinery genes, namely,Dgcr8andXpo5,were significantly increased by melatonin. The miRNA expression profile was identified in the testes of melatonin-treated mice. Ten miRNAs were significantly up-regulated, and 15 miRNAs were down-regulated. Melatonin (25 μM) enhanced cell growth and reduced apoptosis in GC-1 spg cells. Among the down-regulated miRNAs, miR-16 expression was influenced by melatonin in GC-1 spg cells. The miR-16 mimics in GC-1 spg cells significantly suppressed cell growth and promoted cell apoptosis. Conversely, transfection of the miR-16 inhibitor significantly increased cell growth and decreased cell apoptosis. The protein expression level of CCND1 (Cyclin D1) in GC-1 spg cells was decreased by the miR-16 mimics and increased by knockdown of miR-16. Moreover, bioinformatics and reporter activity analyses showed thatCcnd1was a potential target of miR-16. These results suggested that miR-16 may function as a novel regulator of testicular functions during melatonin stimulation by targetingCcnd1.