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The selection of breeding habitat has broadscale implications for species distributions and community structure and smaller-scale ramifications for offspring survival and parental fitness. In anurans, offspring deposition is a decisionmaking process that involves the assessment of multiple factors at a breeding site, including the presence of predators and competitors. Evolutionary theory predicts that adult anurans should seek to minimize the risk of predation to offspring, reduce the pressure of competition, and maximize offspring survival. Many experimental studies have demonstrated the ability of anurans to assess deposition sites for predation and competition and to choose accordingly, but our understanding of the various ecological factors involved in site choice and the broader consequences of choice is still limited. Here, we review and synthesize the literature on the influence of predators and competitors on anuran deposition behavior. We highlight current gaps in our understanding of this topic and outline future avenues of research.