Segregation of ovarian cancer stage exploiting spectral biomarkers derived from blood plasma or serum analysis: ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with variable selection methods

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Abstract

Ovarian cancer is a solid tumor and a leading cause of mortality. Diagnostic tools for the detection of early stage (stage I) ovarian cancer are urgently needed. For this purpose, attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) coupled with variable selection methods, successive projection algorithm or genetic algorithm (GA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were employed to identify spectral biomarkers in blood plasma or serum samples for accurate diagnosis of different stages of ovarian cancer, histological type and segregation based on age. Three spectral datasets (stage I vs. stage II–IV; serous vs. non-serous carcinoma; and, ≤60 years vs. >60 years) were processed: sensitivity and specificity required for real-world diagnosis of ovarian cancer was achieved. Toward segregating stage I vs. stage II–IV, sensitivity and specificity (plasma blood) of 100% was achieved using a GA-LDA model with 33 wavenumbers. For serous vs. non-serous category (plasma blood), the sensitivity and specificity levels, using 29 wavenumbers by GA-LDA, were remarkable (up to 94%). For ≤60 years and >60 years categories (plasma blood), the sensitivity and specificity, using 42 wavenumbers by GA-LDA, gave complete accuracy (100%). For serum samples, sensitivity and specificity results gave relatively high accuracy (up to 91.6% stage I vs. stage II–IV; up to 93.0% serous vs. non-serous; and, up to 96.0% ≤60 years vs. >60 years) using several wavenumbers. These findings justify a prospective population-based assessment of biomarkers signatures using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy as a screening tool for stage of ovarian cancer.

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