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Few studies have examined the age-standardized incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for comparison between populations. Information on delivery outcomes is also lacking for Chinese women with GDM. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine age-standardized GDM incidence and assess its association with maternal and neonatal outcomes.A total of 1901 pregnant women were recruited in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. GDM was diagnosed between 24 and 28 weeks’ gestation using oral glucose tolerance tests. Age-standardized incidence rates of GDM were calculated using the direct method. Delivery outcomes were extracted from medical records and compared between the GDM and non-GDM groups.The age-standardized GDM incidence was 18.3% (95% CI 15.6-21.1) and increased with maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). Women with GDM experienced longer length of stay in hospital, shorter gestation at delivery, and a higher risk of cesarean delivery. Their newborns were more likely to be macrosomic or small for gestational age, and to require neonatal intensive care.The incidence of GDM was high in Western China, especially among older and overweight women. Moreover, women with GDM had higher rates of adverse delivery outcomes. The findings lend further support for the screening, prevention, and management of GDM in Chinese women.