We examined how the influence of smoking on blood and urinary cadmium (Cd) concentrations was modified by the level of environmental Cd. We measured blood and urinary Cd concentrations of 1134 men over 50 yr of age in three areas in Japan that were exposed to different levels of environmental Cd. Analysis of variance was used to compare Cd concentrations in blood and urine of smokers with those of nonsmokers living in the three areas. Correlation coefficients between the number of cigarets smoked per day or smoking indices (the number of cigarets smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked) and blood and urinary Cd concentrations were calculated. No significant difference in Cd concentrations between smokers and nonsmokers was observed in areas where the average Cd concentration in blood was over approx 2.4 ng/g, 2.0 μg/L in urine, and 2.3 μg/g creatinine in urine, respectively. Therefore, it was suggested that an influence of smoking on blood and urinary Cd concentrations was not observed in areas exposed to relatively high levels of environmental Cd.