Urinary and Serum Titanium: Assessment as an Indicator of Exposure to Ammonium Citratoperoxotitanate (IV) and Its Influence on Renal Function

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

Ammonium citratoperoxotitanate IV (TAS-FINE) is a water-soluble titanium complex used to synthesize a photocatalytic titanium(IV) oxide film. This study was aimed to investigate the LD50, dose–Cresponse, time-course response, and renal toxicity of TAS-FINE using an animal model. Serum titanium (S-Ti) and its 24-h urinary excretion (U-Ti) were determined by inductively coupled plasma–Cargon emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) after a single oral TAS-FINE administration to male Wistar rats. The LD50 of TAS-FINE was 7.97 g/kg body weight in 24 h, and its half-life was 3.78±1.28 d for S-Ti and 2.19±0.09 d for U-Ti. Although TAS-FINE was not easily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, it was distributed into the bloodstream in a dose-dependent manner. Within 24 h, 0.189% of adminis-trated Ti was excreted via urine. It was speculated that TAS-FINE formed conjugates with serum constituents that resulted in nephrotoxicity resulting from an allergic reaction. The observed indices in this study were revealed to be good indicators for TAS-FINE exposure. The analytical method and animal model described in this study will help to further elucidate details about human exposure to TAS-FINE, which in recent times has become an occupational and environmental toxicant of concern.

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