Although manganese (Mn) is an essential element, exposure to excessive levels of Mn and its accumulation in the brain can cause neurotoxicity and extrapyramidal syndrome. We have investigated the differences in the accumulated levels of Mn, the degree of lipid peroxidation, and its effects on the levels of trace elements (Fe, Cu, and Zn) in various regions in the brain of rats having undergone acute Mn exposure. The rats in the doseeffect group were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with MnCl2 (25, 50, or 100 mg MnCl2/kg) once a day for 24 h. The Mn significantly accumulated (p<0.05) in the frontal cortex, corpus callosum, hippocampus, striatum, hypothala-mus, medulla, cerebellum, and spinal cord in each case. The rats in the time-course group were ip injected with MnCl2 (50 mg MnCl2/kg) and then monitored 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure. The Mn accumulated in the frontal cortex, corpus callosum, hippocampus, striatum hypothalamus, medulla, cerebellum, and spinal cord after these periods of time, In both the doseeffect and time-course studies, we observed that the concentration of malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, increased significantly in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, medulla, and cerebellum. However, no relationship between the concentrations of Mn in the brain and the extent of lipid peroxidation was observed. In addition, we found that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the level of Fe in the hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, medulla, and cerebellum, but the Cu and Zn levels had not changed significantly. These findings indicated that Mn induces an increase in the iron level, which provides direct evidence for Fe-mediated lipid peroxidation in the rats brains; these phenomena might play important roles in the mechanisms of Mn-induced neurotoxicology.