We report two young patients who had repeated neurosurgical procedures and who were thought to be at risk of developing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The first patient had been given a lyophilized dural graft in the course of removal of a cerebellar medulloblastoma 15 yr previously. The second patient had received pituitary-derived growth hormone for treatment of growth hormone deficiency, secondary to a third ventricle teratoma, exised 13 yr earlier. The presence of cerebellar symptoms together with being recipients of growth hormone or dural graft of cadaveric extraction arose suspicion of a diagnosis of CJD in both individuals. Precautions in the anaesthetic and surgical management of these two patients are discussed, and pertinent literature is reviewed briefly.