Entropy indices vs the bispectral index™ for estimating nociception during sevoflurane anaesthesia

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Abstract

Background

It is now possible to acquire and process raw EEG and frontal EMG signals to produce two spectral-entropy-based indices (response entropy and state entropy) reflective of analgesic and hypnotic levels during general anaesthesia (with the Datex-Ohmeda S/5 Entropy Module, Datex-Ohmeda, Helsinki, Finland). However, there are no data available on the accuracy of the Entropy Module in estimating nociception during sevoflurane anaesthesia.

Methods

Forty female patients were enrolled in the present study. Each patient was allocated randomly to one of four end-tidal sevoflurane concentration (ETsev) groups (1.3, 1.7, 2.1 or 2.5%). A BIS Sensor™ (Aspect Medical Systems, Newton, MA) and an Entropy Sensor™ (Datex-Ohmeda) were applied side-by-side to the forehead. The bispectral index (A-2000 BIS Monitor, version 3.4, Aspect Medical Systems), response entropy, state entropy and patient movement were observed after electrical stimulation (20, 40, 60 and 80 mA, 100 Hz, 5 s) and after skin incision during sevoflurane anaesthesia (1.3, 1.7, 2.1 or 2.5%). Accuracy of the EEG variables in differentiating the intensity of electrical stimulation was estimated by the prediction probability (PK) values.

Results

Response entropy and state entropy [median, (range)] before skin incision were significantly lower in patients who did not move [29 (15–41) and 24 (14–41)] than in those that did [38 (24–53) and 37 (24–52)], but there was no significant difference in BIS. All EEG variables increased significantly (P<0.0001 for all) with increases in the intensity of electrical stimulation. The difference between response entropy and state entropy increased with increases in the electrical stimulation (P<0.0001). However, no EEG variables could differentiate the intensity of the electrical stimulations accurately because of low PK-values (PK<0.8).

Conclusion

Noxious stimulation increased the difference between response entropy and state entropy. However, an increase in the difference does not always indicate inadequate analgesia and should be interpreted carefully during anaesthesia.

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