Does the type of fluid affect rapidity of shock reversal in an anaesthetized-piglet model of near-fatal controlled haemorrhage? A randomized study

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Abstract

Background.

The optimal resuscitation fluid for the early treatment of severe bleeding patients remains highly debated. The objective of this experimental study was to compare the rapidity of shock reversal with lactated Ringer (LR) or hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 at the early phase of controlled haemorrhagic shock. To assess the influence of vascular permeability in this model, we measured plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels during the experiment.

Methods.

Thirty-six anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated piglets were bled (<30 ml kg−1) to hold mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 40 mm Hg for more than 30 min and were resuscitated in two randomized groups: LR (n=14) or HES (n=14) at 1 ml kg−1 min−1 until MAP reached its baseline value of ±10%. MAP was maintained at its baseline value for 1 h. The time and fluid volume necessary to restore the baseline MAP value were measured.

Results.

The time to restore the baseline MAP value of ±10% was significantly lower in the HES group (P<0.001). During the initial resuscitation phase, the infused volume was 279 (119) ml in the HES group and 1011 (561) ml in the LR group (P<0.0001). During the stabilization phase, the infused volume was 119 (124) ml in the HES group and 541 (506) ml in the LR group. Biological data and plasma VEGF levels were similar between the groups.

Conclusions.

Restoration of MAP was four times faster with HES than with LR in the early phase of controlled haemorrhagic shock. However, there was no evidence of increased vascular permeability.

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