Preoperative platelet function predicts perioperative bleeding complications in ticagrelor-treated cardiac surgery patients: a prospective observational study

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Abstract

Background

Treatment with P2Y12 receptor antagonists increases the risk for perioperative bleeding, but there is individual variation in the antiplatelet effect and time to offset of this effect. We investigated whether preoperative platelet function predicts the risk of bleeding complications in ticagrelor-treated cardiac surgery patients.

Methods

Ninety patients with ticagrelor treatment within <5 days of surgery were included in a prospective observational study. Preoperative platelet aggregation was assessed with impedance aggregometry using adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA), and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP) as initiators. Severe bleeding complications were registered using a new universal definition of perioperative bleeding. The accuracy of aggregability tests for predicting severe bleeding was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, which also identified optimal cut-off values with respect to sensitivity and specificity, based on Youden's index.

Results

The median time from the last ticagrelor dose to surgery was 35 (range 4–108) h. The accuracy of platelet function tests to predict severe bleeding was highest for ADP [area under the ROC curve 0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.63–0.84, P<0.001); TRAP 0.61 (0.49–0.74); AA 0.53 (0.40–0.66)]. The optimal cut-off for ADP-induced aggregation was 22 U. In subjects with ADP-induced aggregation below the cut-off value, 24/38 (61%) developed severe bleeding compared with 8/52 (14%) when aggregation was at or above the cut-off value (P<0.001). The positive and negative predictive values for this cut-off value were 63 and 85%, respectively.

Conclusions

Preoperative ADP-induced platelet aggregability predicts the risk for severe bleeding complications in ticagrelor-treated cardiac surgery patients.

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