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To investigate the effect of multiple dosing with montelukast, a selective leukotriene-receptor antagonist, on the pharmacokinetics of rosiglitazone, a CYP2C8 substrate, in humans.A two-period, randomized crossover study was conducted in 10 healthy subjects. After administration of oral doses of placebo or 10 mg montelukast daily for 6 days, 4 mg rosiglitazone was administered and plasma samples were obtained for 24 h and analyzed for rosiglitazone and N-desmethylrosiglitazone using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.During the montelukast phase, the total area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) and peak plasma concentration of rosiglitazone were 102% (90% CI 98, 107%) and 98% (90% CI 92, 103%) of the corresponding values during the placebo phase, respectively. Multiple dosing with montelukast did not affect the oral clearance of rosiglitazone significantly (90% CI 94, 105%; P = 0.50). The AUC ratio and plasma concentration ratios of N-desmethylrosiglitazone: rosiglitazone were not changed by multiple dosing with montelukast (90% CI 90, 103%; P = 0.14).Multiple doses of montelukast do not inhibit CYP2C8-mediated rosiglitazone metabolism in vivo despite in vitro findings indicating that montelukast is a selective CYP2C8 inhibitor.