Human disposition, metabolism and excretion of etamicastat, a reversible, peripherally selective dopamine β-hydroxylase inhibitor

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AIMSEtamicastat is a reversible dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitor that decreases noradrenaline levels in sympathetically innervated tissues and slows down sympathetic nervous system drive. In this study, the disposition, metabolism and excretion of etamicastat were evaluated following [14C]-etamicastat dosing.METHODSHealthy Caucasian males (n = 4) were enrolled in this single-dose, open-label study. Subjects were administered 600 mg of unlabelled etamicastat and 98 μCi weighing 0.623 mg [14C]-etamicastat. Blood samples, urine and faeces were collected to characterize the disposition, excretion and metabolites of etamicastat.RESULTSEleven days after administration, 94.0% of the administered radioactivity had been excreted; 33.3 and 58.5% of the administered dose was found in the faeces and urine, respectively. Renal excretion of unchanged etamicastat and its N-acetylated metabolite (BIA 5-961) accounted for 20.0 and 10.7% of the dose, respectively. Etamicastat and BIA 5-961 accounted for most of the circulating radioactivity, with a BIA 5-961/etamicastat ratio that was highly variable both for the maximal plasma concentration (19.68–226.28%) and for the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time zero to the last sampling time at which the concentration was above the limit of quantification (15.82– 281.71%). Alongside N-acetylation, metabolism of etamicastat also occurs through oxidative deamination of the aminoethyl moiety, alkyl oxidation, desulfation and glucuronidation.CONCLUSIONSEtamicastat is rapidly absorbed, primarily excreted via urine, and its biotransformation occurs mainly via N-acetylation (N-acetyltransferase type 2), although glucuronidation, oxidation, oxidative deamination and desulfation also take place.

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