High-dose intravenous immune globulin for the treatment of autoimmune blistering diseases: an evaluation of its use in 14 cases

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Abstract

Summary

High-dose intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) is used to treat a wide variety of autoimmune diseases. We report our experiences of its use in a retrospective study of 14 patients with autoimmune blistering diseases, namely epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), two; bullous pemphigoid (BP), two; pemphigoid gestationis (PG), one; nodular pemphigoid, two; and pemphigus vulgaris (PV), seven. Two patients with refractory EBA improved following regular courses of IVIG given as monotherapy. IVIG had a steroid-sparing effect in 10 patients with PV, BP and PG. However, the clinical effects were transient and of variable intervals, and repeated courses of IVIG were required. The rapid actions of IVIG were of particular benefit in two patients with extensive, rapidly progressive PV and in one patient with BP in whom swift disease control was required. In such cases, when rapid disease control is paramount, we recommend IVIG used in conjunction with conventional treatments as a safer and less invasive alternative to plasmapheresis. IVIG was ineffective in two patients with nodular pemphigoid. Analysis of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) titres before and after IVIG showed that a fall in titre occurred after 78% of treatments and was observed in all disease groups. However, like the clinical improvements, the falls in IIF titres were transient and of variable interval, and titres rose back to pretreatment levels in all but one patient. IVIG appears to be beneficial under certain circumstances for the treatment of autoimmune blistering diseases but controlled trials are required to define its therapeutic role further.

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