Abnormal deposition of melanin may cause an aesthetic skin problem; therefore, the control of unwanted excessive melanin synthesis is the major goal of cosmetic research.Objectives
To identify novel tyrosinase (TYR) inhibitors from marine plants and examine their cellular antimelanogenic effects.Methods
The extracts of 50 marine plants endemic to Korea were screened against human TYR. Active constituents were then isolated from the selected plant extracts that showed potential and their chemical structures elucidated. Furthermore, their antimelanogenic effects were examined using murine melanoma B16/F10 cells and human epidermal melanocytes (HEM).Results
Among the tested extracts, that of Phyllospadix iwatensis Makino exhibited the strongest human TYR inhibitory activity. The active constituents were purified from the butanol fraction of the P. iwatensis extract and identified as hispidulin 7-sulfate and luteolin 7-sulfate. Luteolin 7-sulfate inhibited human TYR more strongly than hispidulin 7-sulfate, luteolin, hispidulin and arbutin. Furthermore, luteolin 7-sulfate showed lower cytotoxicity than luteolin in both B16/F10 cells and HEM. Luteolin 7-sulfate attenuated cellular melanin synthesis more effectively in B16/F10 cells and HEM stimulated by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and L-tyrosine than arbutin.Conclusions
This study demonstrates that luteolin 7-sulfate isolated from P. iwatensis is a human TYR inhibitor with advantageous antimelanogenic properties, and would be useful for development as a therapeutic agent for the control of unwanted skin pigmentation.