Identification of factors associated with treatment refractoriness of oral lesions in pemphigus vulgaris*

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Abstract

Background

The oral mucosal lesions of patients with pemphigus vulgaris are known to show more treatment refractoriness than skin lesions.

Objectives

To identify which clinical and laboratory parameters may indicate treatment refractoriness of oral lesions in pemphigus vulgaris.

Methods

This was a prospective study of 50 adults with pemphigus vulgaris and oral lesions; patients were given treatment appropriate for overall disease severity. Treatment refractoriness was defined arbitrarily as less than 75% reduction in oral objective Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) after treatment for 6 months.

Results

Of 46 patients who completed the study, 17 (37%) were treatment refractory whereas 29 (63%) were treatment responsive. At baseline, the treatment refractory group had a significantly longer mean duration of disease (P = 0·02) and mean duration of oral lesions (P = 0·01), a higher percentage of lesions in the retromolar trigone (P = 0·05) and on the occlusion line along the buccal mucosa (P = 0·04), a higher percentage of deep/crateriform ulcers (P < 0·001) and erosions with a lichenoid hue (P < 0·001). Herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA positivity, assessed by polymerase chain reaction in oral tissue scrapings (P = 0·02), was also significantly higher in the treatment refractory group. No other factors we tested for were statistically significant.

Conclusions

Treatment refractoriness of oral lesions was significantly associated with duration of disease/oral lesions; specific morphology and location of oral lesions; and the presence of HSV DNA in the oral cavity. These factors may forewarn the treating physician about a refractory course of oral lesions that may help with counselling patients.

What is the translational message?

Linked Comment: Yuan and Pan. Br J Dermatol 2017; 177:1476–1477.

What is the translational message?

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