We report a therapy-related MDS (RAEB) patient with eosinophilia, unbalanced translocation der(7)t(1;7) (q12;q22) and lung cancer. We observed no increase in cytokine levels in serum or in the conditioned medium (CM) of peripheral T cells cultured with or without IL-2. When bone marrow (BM) cells were cultured with GM-CSF, IL-3 and SCF in a semisolid system, the colonies were exclusively eosinophilic. Cytogenetic analysis of the colony cells identified the same chromosome abnormality in all metaphases to that of BM cells. Suspension and clonogenic colony assay of BM cells cultured with various cytokines showed predominant eosinophilic growth and differentiation with GM-CSF, but not with the other cytokines examined. These findings, together with mild morphological abnormalities of eosinophils, indicate clonal involvement of eosinophils in the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) clone, and that the eosinophilia was derived from the neoplastic clone with the translocation and was not associated with the patient's lung cancer.