Analysis of IgVH gene mutations in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia according to antigen-driven selection identifies subgroups with different prognosis and usage of the canonical somatic hypermutation machinery

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Cases of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) with mutated (M) IgVH genes have a better prognosis than unmutated (UM) cases. We analysed the IgVH mutational status of B-CLL according to the features of a canonical somatic hypermutation (SHM) process, correlating this data with survival. In a series of 141 B-CLLs, 124 cases were examined for IgVH gene per cent mutations and skewing of replacement/silent mutations in the framework/complementarity-determining regions as evidence of antigen-driven selection; this identified three B-CLL subsets: significantly mutated (sM), with evidence of antigen-driven selection, not significantly mutated (nsM) and UM, without such evidence and IgVH gene per cent mutations above or below the 2% cut-off. sM B-CLL patients had longer survival within the good prognosis subgroup that had more than 2% mutations of IgVH genes. sM, nsM and UM B-CLL were also characterized for the biased usage of IgVH families, intraclonal IgVH gene diversification, preference of mutations to target-specific nucleotides or hotspots, and for the expression of enzymes involved in SHM (translesion DNA polymerase ζ and η and activation-induced cytidine deaminase). These findings indicate the activation of a canonical SHM process in nsM and sM B-CLLs and underscore the role of the antigen in defining the specific clinical and biological features of B-CLL.

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