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Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is one of the most important complications of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Although MPN are common causes of SVT, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this predisposition, their epidemiology and natural history are not fully understood. Studies have concentrated on the generalized prothrombotic environment generated by MPN and their relationship with abnormal blood counts, thereby furthering our knowledge of arterial and venous thrombosis in this population. In contrast, there are few studies that have specifically addressed SVT in the context of MPN. Recent research has demonstrated in patients with MPN the existence of factors increasing the risk of SVT such as the presence of the JAK2 V617F mutation and its 46/1 haplotype. Features unique to the circulating blood cells, splanchnic vasculature and surrounding micro-environment in patients with MPN have been described. There are also abnormalities in local haemodynamics, haemostatic molecules, the spleen, and splanchnic endothelial and endothelial progenitor cells. This review considers these important advances and discusses the contribution of individual anomalies that lead to the development of SVT in both the pre-neoplastic and overt stage of MPN. Clinical issues relating to epidemiology, recurrence and survival in these patients have also been reviewed and their results discussed.