Mycophenolate mofetil and Sirolimus as second or further line treatment in children with chronic refractory Primitive or Secondary Autoimmune Cytopenias: a single centre experience

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The management of refractory autoimmune cytopenias in childhood is challenging due to the lack of established evidence on escalating treatments. The long-term efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs was evaluated in children with refractory autoimmune cytopenias referred to the Haematology Unit of the Gaslini Children's Hospital between 2001 and 2014. Patients were grouped into three categories: autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), ALPS-related syndrome (at least one absolute/primary additional criterion for ALPS) and primary autoimmune cytopenia (PAC, cytopenia with no other immunological symptoms/signs). Fifty-eight children (aged 1–16 years) entered the study: 12 were categorized with ALPS, 24 were ALPS-related and 22 had PAC. Five didn't receive treatment. Fifty-three were initially treated with steroids/intravenous immunoglobulin. Fourteen responded, whereas 39 did not. Of these 39 patients, 34 (87%) received mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as second/further-line treatment and 22 (65%) responded. Within these 34 subjects, ALPS patients responded better (11/11, 100%) than the two other groups pooled together (11/23, 48%; P = 0·002). Sirolimus was given as second/further-line treatment to 16 children, and 12 (75%) responded, including 8 who previously failed MMF therapy. Median follow-up was 3·46 years. MMF and Sirolimus were well-tolerated and enabled partial/complete and sustained remission in most children. These drugs may be successfully and safely used in children with refractory autoimmune cytopenias with or without ALPS/ALPS-related disorders and may represent a valid second/further line option.

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