Can chronic myeloid leukaemia in children and adolescents be successfully treated without haematopoietic stem cell transplant? A single centre experience

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We analysed the long-term outcome of 35 children and adolescents (<20 years at diagnosis) with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in chronic phase: 20 patients had received interferon-alpha and/or tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and 15 underwent a haematopoietic stem cell transplant. The 10-year survival probabilities were similar in transplanted and non-transplanted patients (73·3% vs. 72·1%, respectively), whereas the survival probability was significantly lower in patients diagnosed before 1999 compared to those diagnosed afterwards (62·1% vs. 100%, P = 0·0384). The availability of TKIs and the standardized molecular monitoring have significantly improved treatment, management and outcome in children and adolescents with CML.

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