The availability of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has extended therapeutic options for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients. Monitoring recommendations and clinical response goals have recently been updated. The objective of this study was to describe the profile of CML patients in chronic phase currently receiving first-line therapy, including treatment, monitoring and response kinetics. A multicentre, cross-sectional, epidemiological survey in unselected chronic phase CML patients in France attending consultations during a one-month period was performed. 438 of 697 (62·8%) reported patients were currently receiving first-line treatment and were analysed. Imatinib was the most frequently received treatment (72·4% of patients). Retrospective cytogenetic and molecular assessments at 3, 6, 12 or 18 months were available in 88·4% of patients. At the 12-month assessment, 32·2% were not in major molecular response (MMR). At last assessment, among 355 patients with duration of treatment ≥ 12 months, 91·5% had achieved MMR and 66·5% were in deep molecular response. This study, performed in everyday practice population of CML patients, suggests that monitoring of molecular responses in real-life practice is aligned with European LeukaemiaNet recommendations. The majority of patients still receiving first-line treatment are in optimal response, with a few being classified as in the warning area or responding to failure.