Hyperemesis gravidarum and risks of placental dysfunction disorders: a population-based cohort study

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Abstract

Objective

To study whether pregnancies complicated by hyperemesis gravidarum in the first (<12 weeks) or second (12–21 weeks) trimester are associated with placental dysfunction disorders.

Design

Population-based cohort study.

Setting

Sweden.

Population

All pregnancies in the Swedish Medical Birth Register estimated to have started on 1 January 1997 or later and ended in a single birth on 31 December 2009 or earlier (n = 1 156 050).

Methods

Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated for placental dysfunction disorders in women with an inpatient diagnosis of hyperemesis gravidarum, using women without inpatient diagnosis of hyperemesis gravidarum as reference. Risks were adjusted for maternal age, parity, body mass index, height, smoking, cohabitation with the infant's father, infant's sex, mother's country of birth, education, presence of hyperthyreosis, pregestational diabetes mellitus, chronic hypertension and year of infant birth.

Main outcome measures

Placental dysfunction disorders, i.e. pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, stillbirth and small for gestational age (SGA).

Results

Women with hyperemesis gravidarum in the first trimester had only a slightly increased risk of pre-eclampsia. Women with hyperemesis gravidarum with first admission in the second trimester had a more than doubled risk of preterm (<37 weeks) pre-eclampsia, a threefold increased risk of placental abruption and a 39% increased risk of an SGA birth (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] were: 2.09 [1.38–3.16], 3.07 [1.88–5.00] and 1.39 [1.06–1.83], respectively).

Conclusions

There is an association between hyperemesis gravidarum and placental dysfunction disorders, which is especially strong for women with hyperemesis gravidarum in the second trimester.

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