The Zimmerman-McLean-Foster hypothesis: 25 years later

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Abstract

It is now 25 years since the publication of the landmark article by Zimmerman, McLean, and Foster, in which they cast doubts on the benefit of enucleation, which was the prevailing management of choroidal melanoma at that time. Over the past 25 years several advances have been made in the management of uveal melanoma. Research in the pathobiology of cancer metastasis in general and uveal melanoma in particular has also provided new insights. In this review, the Zimmerman-McLean-Foster hypothesis is explored in the light of current clinical, epidemiological, statistical, and experimental evidence.

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