What do patients with strabismus expect post surgery? The development and validation of a questionnaire

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To develop and validate a short questionnaire to assess patients’ expectations about outcomes post strabismus surgery.


Questionnaire items were extracted from previous literature and reviewed by a multidisciplinary team. A cross-sectional study was then undertaken with 220 adult patients due to undergo strabismus surgery. Participants completed the 17-item questionnaire. Scale structure was explored using principal component analysis (PCA), and the subscales analysed in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics and psychosocial well-being in order to establish validity.


PCA revealed a 3-factor solution for the Expectations of Strabismus Surgery Questionnaire (ESSQ): (a) intimacy and appearance-related issues, (b) visual functioning, (c) social relationships. This 3-factor solution explained 59.30% of the overall variance in the ESSQ. Internal consistency, content and nomological and concurrent validity were considered acceptable.


Patients with strabismus have high expectations about their postsurgical outcomes. This questionnaire provides a useful tool to assess the expectations patients have about their surgery, whether these expectations change over time and how they impact on postsurgical outcomes.

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