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To study the electrophysiological changes in relation to fundus morphology in moderate-to-late preterm (MLP) children with no previous history of retinopathy of prematurity.Visual acuity (VA), refraction and fundus variables measured by optical coherence tomography, pattern reversal visual evoked potentials and full-field electroretinography (ff-ERG) were obtained from 22 twelve-year-old MLP children (11 male, 11 female) and 21 full-term controls.There were no significant differences between the MLP and control groups in VA, refraction or optic disc parameters. There was a trend for thinner papillary retinal nerve fibre layer in the MLP group. Visual evoked potential amplitudes (P100) were lower in the MLP group than in controls, that is, right eye p=0.0027, left eye p=0.0037. No differences in latencies were found. After Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing, no ff-ERG differences were noted between MLP and controls. Lower gestational age was correlated with smaller light-adapted 3.0 b-wave amplitudes (p=0.0076, r=0.565).Our results indicate that moderate premature birth may affect visual evoked potential amplitudes without clear retinal structural changes in MLP children at 12 years of age.