To assess the long-term (3-9 years) results of augmentation ileocystoplasty for non-neurogenic female urge incontinence in terms of continence, the need for intermittent self-catheterization and the need for additional or auxiliary treatment, to define the long-term complications and to assess the patients' satisfaction with the outcome.Patients and methods
The study comprised 51 women who underwent augmentation ileocystoplasty for non-neurogenic urge incontinence between November 1987 and December 1993; 27 patients had associated interstitial cystitis. All patients had exhausted conservative methods, with an unsatisfactory outcome. All patients were interviewed about the results of the procedure, and their charts reviewed and updated with relevant information.Results
Within a mean (range) follow-up of 75.4 (36-109) months, 27 patients (53%) were completely continent, 13 (25%) had occasional leaks and nine (18%) continued to have disabling urge incontinence frequently requiring pads. Regular self-catheterization was needed by 20 (39%) patients while the rest emptied adequately with no or minimal residual volumes. Additional pharmacotherapy had to be used by 12 (24%) patients. Three patients later developed stress urinary incontinence and were managed with fascial sling procedures. The patch was revised in two patients and excised from four others because they had high residual volumes and uncontrollable infections. Two patients had an ileal conduit diversion for persistent incontinence. The most common complication was recurrent urinary tract infections, seen in 22 patients using intermittent self-catheterization. Mucus retention occurred regularly in 10 patients, six had chronic diarrhoea, four had latent bowel obstruction, one developed a bladder stone, one an incisional hernia and one developed patch necrosis and perforation. Twenty-seven patients (53%) were happy with the outcome of the procedure while 20 (39%) were not; four patients were unsure whether a change had occurred.Conclusion
Augmentation ileocystoplasty is a valuable alternative for women with intractable urge incontinence. However, these patients and their physicians should be aware of its limitations, specifically the possibility that incontinence may persist and the high probability of the need for self-catheterization, with potential subsequent urinary tract infection.