Gastrointestinal roles for proteinase-activated receptors in health and disease

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Abstract

It has been almost a decade since the molecular cloning of all four members of the proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) family was completed. This unique family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediates specific cellular actions of various endogenous proteinases including thrombin, trypsin, tryptase, etc. and also certain exogenous enzymes. Increasing evidence has been clarifying the emerging roles played by PARs in health and disease. PARs, particularly PAR1 and PAR2, are distributed throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, modulating various GI functions. One of the most important GI functions of PARs is regulation of exocrine secretion in the salivary glands, pancreas and GI mucosal epithelium. PARs also modulate motility of GI smooth muscle, involving multiple mechanisms. PAR2 appears to play dual roles in pancreatitis and related pain, being pro-inflammatory/pro-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory/anti-nociceptive. Similarly, dual roles for PAR1 and PAR2 have been demonstrated in mucosal inflammation/damage throughout the GI tract. There is also fundamental and clinical evidence for involvement of PAR2 in colonic pain. PARs are thus considered key molecules in regulation of GI functions and targets for development of drugs for treatment of various GI diseases.

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