AbstractBackground and purpose:
The protoberberine alkaloid berberine has been reported to inhibit colonic Cl− secretion. However, it is not known if other protoberberine alkaloids share these effects. We have therefore selected another protoberberine alkaloid, palmatine, to assess its effects on active ion transport across rat colonic epithelium.Experimental approach:
Rat colonic mucosa was mounted in Ussing chambers and short circuit current (ISC), apical Cl− current and basolateral K+ current were recorded. Intracellular cAMP content was determined by an enzyme immunoassay. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was measured with Fura-2 AM.Key results:
Palmatine inhibited carbachol-induced Ca2+-activated Cl− secretion and the carbachol-induced increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Palmatine also inhibited cAMP-activated Cl− secretion induced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or forskolin. Palmatine prevented the elevation of intracellular cAMP by forskolin. Determination of apical Cl− currents showed that palmatine suppressed the forskolin-stimulated, apical cAMP-activated Cl− current but not the carbachol-stimulated apical Ca2+-activated Cl− current. Following permeabilization of apical membranes with nystatin, we found that palmatine inhibited a carbachol-stimulated basolateral K+ current that was sensitive to charybdotoxin and resistant to chromanol 293B. However, the forskolin-stimulated basolateral K+ current inhibited by palmatine was specifically blocked by chromanol 293B and not by charybdotoxin.Conclusions and implications:
Palmatine attenuated Ca2+-activated Cl− secretion through inhibiting basolateral charybdotoxin-sensitive, SK4 K+ channels, whereas it inhibited cAMP-activated Cl− secretion by inhibiting apical CFTR Cl− channels and basolateral chromanol 293B-sensitive, KvLQT1 K+ channels.