AbstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
NO deficiency and oxidative stress are crucially involved in the development or progression of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension and stroke. We have previously demonstrated that acute treatment with the newly discovered organic nitrate, 2-nitrate-1,3-dibuthoxypropan (NDBP), is associated with NO-like effects in the vasculature. This study aimed to further characterize the mechanism(s) and to elucidate the therapeutic potential in a model of hypertension and oxidative stress.EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH
A combination of ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo approaches was used to assess the effects of NDBP on vascular reactivity, NO release, NADPH oxidase activity and in a model of hypertension.KEY RESULTS
Ex vivo vascular studies demonstrated NDBP-mediated vasorelaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries, which was devoid of tolerance. In vitro studies using liver and kidney homogenates revealed dose-dependent and sustained NO generation by NDBP, which was attenuated by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat. In addition, NDBP reduced NADPH oxidase activity in the liver and prevented angiotensin II-induced activation of NADPH oxidase in the kidney. In vivo studies showed that NDBP halted the progression of hypertension in mice with chronic angiotensin II infusion. This was associated with attenuated cardiac hypertrophy, and reduced NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress and fibrosis in the kidney and heart.CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
The novel organic nitrate NDBP halts the progression of angiotensin II-mediated hypertension. Mechanistically, our findings suggest that NDBP treatment is associated with sustained NO release and attenuated activity of NADPH oxidase, which to some extent requires functional xanthine oxidase.