Price, cost and value of opiate detoxification treatments: Reanalysis of data from two randomised trials

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Treatments in different settings have different costs. A dilemma arises if expensive treatments lead to better outcomes.


To investigate conflicts between the priorities of cost minimisation, clinical effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness in the detoxification of opiate addicts.


Cost and clinical effectiveness were examined using published outcome data. The main outcome measures were: achieving a drug-free state on completion of detoxification; the economic costs of treatment.


In terms of simple cost, inpatient detoxification is much more expensive than out-patient treatment (ratio, 24:1). With adjustment for successful outcome, the costs are almost identical (ratio, 0.9:1). Comparison of specialist and general psychiatry in-patient settings showed that even when adjusted for clinical outcomes, the specialist setting is more costly (ratio, 1.9:1), although the outcomes are better.


Naïve adherence to cost and cost-containment considerations is dangerous. Discussion of treatment costs is misleading if not informed by, and adjusted for, evidence of effectiveness. This is especially important where marked differences in outcome between treatment options exist.

Declaration of interest

Partial funding from the Medical Research Council.

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