Conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) with carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum may cause major cardiovascular changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum and positional changes on haemodynamics and cardiac function in patients assigned randomly to CLC or gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy (GLC).Methods
Fifty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II were randomly allocated to CLC (28 patients) or GLC (22). Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters, fractional shortening and cardiac output were determined by transoesophageal echocardiography. Measurements were performed before (phase 1) and 10 and 30 min (phases 2 and 3 respectively) after pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall traction, and after desufflation or release of abdominal wall traction (phase 4) in supine, Trendelenburg and reverse Trendelenburg positions.Results
Mean diastolic diameter, systolic diameter, mean arterial pressure and heart rate were significantly higher, and fractional shortening was significantly lower, with carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum than with the gasless procedure during phases 2 and 3. There were no significant differences in cardiac output between the two groups.Conclusion
Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum was associated with increased preload and afterload in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystecomy. It also decreased heart performance (fractional shortening), but did not affect cardiac output.