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What's known on the subject? and What does the study add?The gold standard in the reconstruction of the defect urinary system is still the transplantation of autologous gastrointestinal segments although numerous different types of biomaterials (natural/synthetic) have been investigated as possible replacements. However, the ideal biomaterial is still not identified.In this study, we were able to identify the engineered collagen-based OptiMaix® scaffolds as promising biomaterials for the reconstruction of the urinary tract.To analyse the in vitro cytocompatibility of several engineered collagen-based biomaterials for tissue engineering of the urinary tract.Tissue-engineered implants for the reconstruction of the urinary tract are of major interest for urological researchers as well as clinicians. Although several materials have been investigated, the ideal replacement has still to be identified.Several collagen matrices were tested.Electron microscopy was used to visualize the microstructure of the tested matrices.Examination of cell attachment and growth of primary porcine urothelial and smooth muscle cells were performed and cell phenotypes were analysed using immunohistochemical stains.Urea permeability was investigated using Ussing chamber experiments.The best cytocompatibility for both urinary tract-specific cell types was obtained with OptiMaix® (Matricel GmbH, Herzogenrath, Germany) materials.Cell-specific phenotypes were maintained during culture as shown by immunohistochemical staining.Furthermore, simultaneous cultivation of both cell types for 7 and 14 days significantly reduced urea permeability.These results show the potential of OptiMaix materials in tissue engineering approaches of urinary tract tissues.