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What’s known on the subject? and What does the study add?Diabetes mellitus seriously affects urinary bladder function. Diabetes induces time-dependent bladder hypertrophy and altered tissue composition. However, the alterations of the density of nerves and vasculatures in bladder under diabetes remains poorly studied.Diabetes induced time-dependent changes of density of the nerves and vasculatures in the bladder tissues. In addition, diabetes-related polyuria plays an important role in this alteration.To characterize the temporal changes of the nerves and vasculature of the bladder in diabetic rats.A total of 36 Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: streptozotocin-induced diabetics, 5% sucrose-induced diuretics and age-matched controls.The characteristics of the nerves and vasculature in the equatorial cross-sectional areas of the bladder were examined by immunofluorescence staining of their specific markers, neurofilament 200 (NF200) and CD31, at 1, 9 or 20 weeks after induction.The distributions of the nerves and blood vessels were observed and the densities were quantified.Diabetes caused a significant reduction in body weight. Bladder weight increased in diabetic and diuretic rats, but not in controls.The total cross-sectional wall area and detrusor muscle area at the equatorial midline were greater in bladders of diabetic and diuretic rats than in controls.Neurofilament 200-immunoreactive (NF200-IR) nerves were mainly distributed in the detrusor muscle. CD31-immunoreactive blood vessels were mainly distributed in the mucosa/submucosa.There were no significant differences in the NF200-IR nerve terminal area among control, diabetic and diuretic groups. However nerve density was decreased at 9 and 20 weeks in the muscle, and at 20 weeks in the mucosa/submucosa in diabetic and diuretic animals.Blood vessel density decreased in the diabetic and diuretic groups at 20 weeks in the muscle.Diabetes induced time-dependent changes in the density of the nerves and vasculature in the bladder tissues.Diabetes-related polyuria plays an important role in these changes.