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What's known on the subject? and What does the study add?Testicular torsion results in atrophy rates of more than 25% despite prompt surgical management, and there is no reliable intraoperative critieria to judge the viability of the testis, except the testicular appearance after scrotal incision. We demonstrated that less reduction of ITP after detorsion correlated with worse subsequent spermatogenesis. This result suggests that ITP can be the index to determine removal of the affected testis during surgery.To assess the correlation between intratesticular pressure (ITP) after testicular torsion and subsequent testicular function using a rat model and to show that ITP at surgery is a useful predictor of future spermatogenesis.Fourteen rats were divided into a torsion group (n= 7) and a control group with sham operation (n= 7).Torsion was created by 720° rotation of the left testis in a counter-clockwise direction.Using a handheld compartment monitor, the ITP of the torsed testes was measured three times: before torsion (pre-torsion), just before torsion repair (pre-detorsion) and 5 min after torsion repair (post-detorsion).We evaluated the correlation between ITP and testicular weight, epididymal sperm count or pathological findings, such as the seminiferous tubule diameter (STD) and the modified Johnsen's score, 4 weeks after surgery.Mean (se) pre-torsion, pre-detorsion and post-detorsion ITP values in the torsion group were 5.9 (2.5), 19.7 (10.7) and 8.2 (4.8) cm H2O, respectively.The ITP in torsed testes significantly increased after torsion (P < 0.01) and decreased after detorsion (P < 0.01).Strong correlations were observed between the reduction of ITP after detorsion and testicular weight (r= 0.87, P < 0.05), epididymal sperm count (r= 0.94, P < 0.05), STD (r= 0.87, P < 0.05) or the Johnsen's score (r= 0.99, P < 0.001).A smaller reduction in ITP after detorsion can be a risk factor for subsequent disturbance of spermatogenesis, suggesting that ITP can be an index for determining whether the affected testis should be removed after testicular torsion.