Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer

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Abstract

Objective

To investigate the results of performing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (HRPC): PSA level of ≥20 ng/mL ± biopsy Gleason ≥8 ± clinical T stage ≥2c.

Patients and Methods

Of a total of 1975 patients having LRP during a 159-month period from 2000 to 2013, 446 (22.6%) had HRPC; all patients were staged by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and isotope bone scanning. The median (range) patient age was 64.0 (36–79) years; body mass index 27.0 (18–43) kg/m2; PSA level 8.1 (0.1–93) ng/mL and biopsy Gleason 8 (6–10). All patients had a pelvic lymphadenectomy, which was done using an extended template after April 2008 (53.3%). Neurovascular bundle (NVB) preservation was done in 41.5% (bilateral 26.3%; unilateral 15.2%) of patients; an incremental or partial nerve-sparing technique was used in 99 of the 302 (32.8%) NVBs preserved.

Results

The median (range) gland weight was 58.5 (20–161) g; operating time 180 (92–330) min; blood loss 200 (10–1400) mL; postoperative hospitalisation 3.0 (2–7) nights; catheterisation time 14 (2–35) days; complication rate 7.6%; lymph node (LN) count 16 (2–51); LN positivity 16.2%; LN involvement 2 (1–8); positive surgical margin (PSM) rate 26.0%; up-grading 2.5%; down-grading 4.3%; up-staging from T1/2 to T3, 24.7%; down-staging from T3 to T1/2, 6.1%. No cases were converted to open surgery and three patients were transfused (0.7%) after surgery. At a mean (range) follow-up of 24.9 (3–120) months, 79.2% of patients were free of biochemical recurrence, 91.8% were continent and 64.4% of previously potent non-diabetic men aged <70 years were potent after bilateral nerve preservation.

Conclusion

The low morbidity, 55.4% specimen-confinement rate, 26.0% PSM rate, 79.2% biochemical disease-free survival, 91.8% continence rate and 64.4% potency rate, at 35.2 months in the present study serve as evidence firstly that surgery is an effective treatment for patients with HRPC, curing many and representing the first step of multi-modal treatment for others, and that LRP for HRPC appears to be as effective as open RP in this context.

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