We studied various aspects of graft impaction and penetration of cement in an experimental model. Cancellous bone was removed proximally and local diaphyseal lytic defects were simulated in six human cadaver femora. After impaction grafting the specimens were sectioned and prepared for histomorphometric analysis.
The porosity of the graft was lowest in Gruen zone 4 (52%) and highest in Gruen zone 1(76%). At the levels of Gruen zones 6 and 2 the entire cross-section was almost filled with cement. Cement sometimes reached the endosteal surface in other Gruen zones. The mean peak impaction forces exerted with the impactors were negatively correlated with the porosity of the graft.